Urban growth, regeneration and social inclusion in Porto Alegre: the City Entrance Integrated Programme case study

Ioanni Delsante, Luciana Inês Gomes Miron

Abstract


Since 1989 Porto Alegre has become an international reference for planning (UN Habitat, 1996) and regeneration practices associated also with the Participatory Budget process (Pacheco, 2001; Fedozzi, 1998), aiming at poverty reduction and social inclusiveness (Getúlio Vargas Foundation, 2004; UNDP, 2003; UN/UMP, 2003). Within the new city masterplan approved in 1999 the City Entrance Integrated Programme (henceforth PIEC) has been delivered since 2002 (Vargas, 2003; PMPA, 2014). The paper critically analyses the outcomes of the 4th District’s regeneration process and relate them to recent trends in terms of informal rapid urbanisation, social and ecological indicators.

The findings highlight how, even though enjoying economic development and positive macro-economic trends, Porto Alegre is facing new or increasing challenges in terms of housing needs, informal urbanisation, social and environmental resilience. Unexpected internal people displacement, together with real estate speculation and the rise of new informal urbanization, provide a worrying picture of increasing inequalities across the city. The paper provides a reflection on the shortcomings and the fragility of the planning process, especially in terms of social and environmental impact, to draw some provisional conclusions and directions for further research activities.


Keywords


Porto Alegre; PIEC - City Entrance Integrated Programme; Post-occupancy evaluation; Informal urbanization

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abramo, P. (ed.) (2001). Cidades em Transformação: entre o Plano e o Mercado – Experiências internacionais em gestão do uso do solo urbano [Cities in transformations: in between the Masterplan and the market. International Experiences in the management of urban land uses]. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. do Autor.

Allegretti, G. (2000). Verso una colloquialità tra città informale e città formale: ipotesi di lettura di un’esperienza esemplare. Il percorso di Porto Alegre (Brasile) fra la ricostruzione del ‘Diritto alla città’ e l’integrazione del tessuto urbano autorganizzato. (Unpublished PhD Thesis). University of Florence, Italy.

Almeida de Soares, M. (1993). Porto Alegre no contexto regional: a questão da habitação e do transporte [Porto Alegre in the regional context: the issue of housing and transportation]. In Panizzi, W & Rovatti, J. (eds) (1993), Estudos Urbanos. PMPA, Porto Alegre: Ed. da Universidade.

Atlas Socioeconomico Rio Grande do Sul (ASRGS). (2015). Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre – RMPA. Retrieved from: http://www1.seplag.rs.gov.br/atlas/conteudo.asp?cod_menu_filho=807&cod_menu=805&tipo_menu=POPULA&cod_conteudo=1396

Baierle, S. G. (2007). Urban Struggles in Porto Alegre: Between Political Revolution and Transformism. Porto Alegre: Cidade – Centro de Assessoria e Estudos Urbanos.

Bradley, J. V. (1968) Distribution-Free Statistical Tests. Englewood: Prentice-Hall.

Brasil Constituição (1988). Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil [Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil]. Brasília, DF: Senado Federal.

Carley, M. (2001). Top-down and bottom-up: the challenge of cities in the new century. In Carley, M. Jenkins, P. & Smith, H. (eds.) Urban Development and Civil Society. London: Earthscan.

Castello, I. & Castello L. (2008). Compacting Porto Alegre, the New City Gates Project. 44th ISOCARP Congress. Dalian, CH. September 19-23, 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/1174.pdf

Contassot, P. T. P. (2014). Transformações no padrão de Habitacao do 4° Distrito de Porto Alegre. [Housing pattern Transformations in 4th District, Porto Alegre]. [Unpublished MSc thesis], Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre.

Departamento Municipal de Habitação (DEMHAB). (1999). Mapa da irregularidade fundiária de Porto Alegre [Map of the land ownership irregularity of Porto Alegre] PMPA, Porto Alegre. Retrieved from: http://lproweb.procempa.com.br/pmpa/prefpoa/demhab/usu_doc/diagnstico_porto_alegre.pdf

Everitt, B. S. (1992). The Analysis of Contingency Tables. London: Chapman & Hall

Fedozzi, L. (1998). Esfera pública e cidadania: a experiência do Orçamento Participativo de Porto Alegre [Public sphere and citizenship: the experience of the Participatory Budget of Porto Alegre]. Ensaios FEE, 19(2), 237-256

Fernandes, E. (1996). Access to urban land and housing in Brazil: ‘Three Degrees of Illegality’. Paper presented at the “Seminar Series”, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy and the Department of Urban Studies and Planning of MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Fiori, R. H. (2000). On “place” and “character” in architecture: the case of Porto Alegre, South Brazil. (Unpublished PhD thesis). London: University College London.

Fundação João Pinheiro, Centro de Estatística e Informações. (2001). Déficit Habitacional no Brasil 2000 [Housing Deficit in Brazil]. Retrieved from http://www.fjp.mg.gov.br

Fundação João Pinheiro, Centro de Estatística e Informações (2015). Déficit Habitacional 2011-2012 [Housing Deficit]. Retrieved from http://www.fjp.mg.gov.br

Formoso, C. T. & Miron, L. (2008). Contribuições para avaliação de programas integrados de habitação de interesse social [Contributions for the assessment of social housing integrated programmes]. Porto Alegre: NORIE/PPGEC/UFRGS.

Fortes, A. (2001). “Nós do quarto distrito…” A classe trabalhadora porto-alegrense e a Era Vargas ["We of the fourth district ..." The working class porto-alegrense and President Vargas Era] (Unpublished PhD Thesis) Universidad Federal Rio Grande do Sul: Porto Alegre.

Getúlio Vargas Foundation (2004, August 10). Revista Você S/A. São Paulo: Abril

Gutberlet, J. & Hunter, A. (2008). Social and environmental exclusion at the edge of São Paulo, Brazil. Urban Design International 13, 3–20.

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., & Tatham, R.L. et al. (2005). Análise Multivariada de Dados [Multivariate Data Analysis]. 5th ed. Porto Alegre: Bookman.

Heinzen, P. (2013). Habitação social brasileira e sua arquitetura. Revista Especialize, 6 (1). Retrieved from: http://www.ipog.edu.br/uploads/arquivos/de07adc013e5c0a60b512d0157dadcbe.pdf

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). (2003). Censo Demográfico 2000: Famílias e Domicílios [Demographic Census 2000: Families and Households]. Retrieved from http://www.ibge.gov.br

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). (2010). Sinopse do Censo Demongráfico 2010 [Synopsis of the 2010 Demographic Census.]. Retrieved from http://www.censo2010.ibge.gov.br/sinopse/index.php?uf=43&dados=0

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). (2005). Assessment of Participatory Budgeting in Brazil. Retrieved from http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=995174

Lara, F. (2010a). The form of the informal, investigating Brazilian self-built housing solutions. In: F. Hernandez, P. Kellet and L. Allen (Eds.) Rethinking the Informal Cities: Critical Perspectives from Latin America. Oxford & New York: Berghahn Books.

Lara, F. (2010b). Beyond Curitiba: The rise of a participatory model for urban intervention in Brazil. Urban Design International 15(2), 119-128.

Lara, F. (2011). New (sub) urbanism and old inequalities in Brazilian gated communities. Journal of Urban Design, 16(3), 369-380.

Malhotra, N. K. (2004). Marketing Research: an applied orientation. Delhi: Pearson Education.

Melchiors, L. (2014). Agentes produtores do espaço urbano e a questão da habitação: distribuição territorial do Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida no município de Gravataí / Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre – RS. [Agents involved in the production of urban space and housing: Territorial distribution of the Minha Casa, Minha Vida Program in the city of Gravataí / Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre – RS]. [Unpublished MSc Thesis]. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre.

Miron, L. I. G. (2008). Gerenciamento dos Requisitos dos Clientes de Empreendimentos Habitacionais de Interesse Social: Proposta para o Programa Integrado Entrada da Cidade em Porto Alegre/RS. Porto Alegre. [Unpublished PhD Thesis]. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10183/14376

Miron, L.I.G. (2014). Evaluation of Benefits Generated by Urban Renewal and Social Housing Programs. Report 2. Data collection with PIEC dwellers - October of 2013. Porto Alegre: PROPUR/UFRGS,

Miron, L.I.G., Marques, L.; Monteiro, D. & Delsante, I. (2015). The effects of changes in Brazilian Housing Policies in a Housing Provision and Urban Regeneration Project in Porto Alegre, South of Brazil, In G. Cairns (Ed.), AMPS Conference Publication Series 4. Obsolescence and Renovation – 20th century Housing in the New Millennium (pp. 169-178). Universidad de Sevilla: Seville.

Möllerke, S. and Miron, L.I.G. (2013). Gestão Urbana no Projeto Cais da Usina do Gasômetro em Porto Alegre/RS - Estudo de Caso [Urban Management at the Pier Project of the Gasometer Plant in Porto Alegre / RS - Case Study]. In III Simpósio Brasileiro de Qualidade do Projeto no Ambiente Construído. IV Encontro Brasileiro de Tecnologia de Informação e comunicação. Campinas/SP. July, 2013.

Moore, S. (2007). Alternative Routes to the Sustainable City: Austin, Curitiba, and Frankfurt. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Observa POA (2015). Tema Cidades Sustentáveis. [Theme Sustainable Cities ]. Retrieved from http://portoalegreemanalise.procempa.com.br/

Pacheco, R.D.A.(2001). O cidadão está nas ruas. Representações e práticas acerca da cidadania republicana em Porto Alegre (1889-1991). [The citizen is in the streets. Representations and practices about republican citizenship in Porto Alegre]. Porto Alegre: Ed. da Universidade/IFCH.

Pessoa, M. (2015). O cenário da habitação informal e da regularização fundiária em Porto Alegre-RS. [The scenario of informal housing and land regularization in Porto Alegre]. Indic. Econ. FEE, 42(3), 109-120. Retrieved from http://revistas.fee.tche.br/index.php/indicadores/article/download/3459/3528

Piccinini, L. (2007). A flexibilidade dos padrões habitacionais e urbanísticos e as formações socio-espaciais informais. [The flexibility of housing and urban patterns and informal socio-spatial formations]. [Unpublished PhD Thesis], Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre

Prefeitura Municipal de Porto Alegre (PMPA). (1999). Plano Diretor de Desenvolvimento Urbano e Ambiental. [Master Plan for Urban and Environmental Development]. Porto Alegre: PMPA/SPM. Retrieved from http://www.portoalegre.rs.gov.br/planeja/spm/default.htm

Prefeitura Municipal de Porto Alegre (PMPA). (2002). Programa Integrado Entrada da Cidade. Caderno 1 Marco de Referência e descrição do Programa. Fundo Financeiro para o Desenvolvimento da Bacia do Prata. [City Entrance Integrated Program. Notebook 1 Reference Framework and Program Description. Financial Fund for the Development of the Plata Basin]. Porto Alegre: Prefeitura Municipal de Porto Alegre.

Prefeitura Municipal de Porto Alegre (PMPA). (2006). Programas Integrados: DEMHAB, 2006. [Integrated Programs: DEMHAB, 2006]. Retrieved from http://www2.portoalegre.rs.gov.br/demhab/default.php?p_secao=20

Prefeitura Municipal de Porto Alegre (PMPA) (2008a). PIEC contribui para a revitalização da Zona Norte. [PIEC contributes to the revitalization of the Northern Zone]. Retrieved from http://www2.portoalegre.rs.gov.br/demhab/default.php?p_noticia=100772&PIEC+CONTRIBUI+PARA+A+REVITALIZACAO+DA+ZONA+NORTE#

Prefeitura Municipal de Porto Alegre (PMPA) (2008b). Usina do Gasômetro. [Gasometer Plant]. Retrieved from http://www2.portoalegre.rs.gov.br/smc/default.php?reg=7&p_secao=19

Prefeitura Municipal de Porto Alegre (PMPA) (2011). Comparativo da população por bairros - Censos do IBGE de 2000 e 2010. [Comparative population by neighborhoods – Census]. Retrieved from http://www2.portoalegre.rs.gov.br/spm/default.php?p_secao=130

Prefeitura Municipal de Porto Alegre (PMPA) (2014). Relatório Semestral Acompanhamento da execução Fisica e Financeira. [Semiannual Report Monitoring of Physical and Financial Execution]. Porto Alegre: Prefeitura Municipal de Porto Alegre.

Rocha, C.; Miron, L. I. G. & Formoso, C. T. (2009). A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Integrated Low-Income Housing Projects. International Symposium on Construction in Developing Countries, 2009, Penang, Malaysia.

Serrano, F. & Summa. R. (2011). Política Macroeconômica, crescimento e distribuição de renda na Economia Brasileira dos anos 2000. [Macroeconomic Policy, growth and income distribution in the Brazilian Economy of the years 2000]. IV Encontro Internacional da Associação Keynesiana Brasileira (AKB), 3-5 August 2011, Rio de Janeiro.

Scruggs G. (2014). Participatory Budgeting’s Birthplace Uses the Mechanism to Build Resilience. NextCity. Retrieved from http://nextcity.org/daily/entry/participatory-budgetings-birthplace-uses-the-mechanism-to-build-resilience

SINDUSCON-RS (2013). Construção Civil Gaúcha. Boletim Econômico 2013. [Construction Gaúcha. Economic Bulletin]. Retrieved from http://www.sinduscon-rs.com.br/produtos-e-servicos/pesquisas-e-indices/boletim-economico/

Smolka, M.O. & Damasio C. P. (2005). The Social Urbanizer: Porto Alegre's Land Policy Experiment. 17(2). Retrieved from http://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/1012_The-Social-Urbanizer--Porto-Alegre-s-Land-Policy-Experiment

Tillmann, P.A., Miron, L. I. G., & Formoso, C. T. (2009). Proposição de um Modelo para Avaliação de Programas Integrados de Habitação. [Proposition of a Evaluation Model of Housing Programs]. In: VI Simpósio Brasileiro de Gestão e Economia da Construção. João Pessoa/PB, 2009.

Tillmann, P.A., Scussel, M. C. B., Formoso, & C. T., Miron, L. I. G. (2011). Desafios para a gestão de projetos urbanos com elevada complexidade: análise do Programa Integrado Entrada da Cidade em Porto Alegre, RS. [Challenges of managing highly complex urban projects: analysis of the integrated city entrance program in Porto Alegre, RS]. Ambiente Construído v.11(3) 73-87.

UN-HABITAT (1996). The Habitat Agenda. Retrieved from http://ww2.unhabitat.org/declarations/habitat_agenda.asp

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2003). Human Development Report 2003. New York: Oxford University Press.

United Nations Urban Management Program (UN/UMP) (2003). Report of the Urban Management Program of UN-HABITAT 2003. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-HABITAT.

Vargas J.C. B. (2003). Advanced Capitalism and Contemporary urban form: Porto Alegre in the XXI century. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228391034_Advanced_Capitalism_and_Contemporary_Urban_Form_Porto_Alegre_in_the_XXI_Century

Zotties L. (2015). What Cities Can Learn From Porto Alegre about Inclusive Planning. The City Fix. Retrieved from http://thecityfix.com/blog/cities-learn-porto-alegre-inclusive-planning-citizen-participation-luisa-zottis/


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License